Rashtriya Military School was founded on 30th December 1945 at Belgaum in the Bombay province. It was then called King George VI Royal Indian Military College. This was the fourth such institution set up in the country.

Initially admission to the school was restricted to the sons of JCOs and OR of the Army and their equivalent ranks in the Navy and Air Force. The boys were prepared for the Army Special Certificate Education Examination. The Instructional staff was drawn exclusively from the Army Education Corps. It was incumbent upon all boys to join the defence service after finishing School.

On Republic Day 1950, the School was renamed King George's Military College. In July 1952, the School was re­organised along the lines of Residential Public Schools. Admissions were thrown open to the sons of Service Officers as well as Civilians. The school boys switched over to the Senior Cambridge Certificate Examination and the pre­condition for admission that all boys should join the defence services was dropped. The School was simultaneously renamed as King George's School.

In 1963, the School was affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi and the boys switched over to the Higner Secondary Examination conducted by the Board. On 01 January 1966, the School was renamed 'Belgaum Military School', Belgaum. In January 1988, the prefix 'Belgaum' was dropped and the school was redesignated 'Military School Belgaum'. Since June 2007, the school is known as Rashtriya Military School, Belgaum. The primary aim of the School is to prepare students for the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination of the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi. The School also prepares such boys, who are desirous of joining the Armed Forces for the entrance examination of National Defence Academy. Boys between the age of 10-12 years are eligible for admission in Class VI. The school spreads over an area of 64.13 acres in which the school buildings include 14 different playgrounds like Cricket, Football, Hockey, Athletics track, Baseball, Basket Ball, Volleyball, Swimming Pool, Squash Court etc. The important school buildings include Main Office Block, Boys Hostels, Cadets' Mess, Academic block, Temple and Old Assembly Hall, New Assembly Hall, Gymnasium, QM Store, Wet Canteen, MI Room and other buildings in addition to the residential accommodation for the Staff.